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FAQ: Двигатели Z16LET

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The Z16LET - 1.6l 16V turbo


With the new loaded 1,6-l-Ottomotor GM Powertrain Europe presents a further application in the middle petrol engine series, internally than engine family 1 designation. The third new development of the 2003 presented generation 3 is offered for the first time in connection with the M32-gearbox in the spring of this yearly 2006 in the OPEL Meriva OPC as high speed variant in this segment. Using one in the exhaust elbow union in the turbocharger reach the engine a maximum power of 132 KW (167HP) and a torque of 230 Nm (170lbs-ft).

The development

Based on 2003 1,6-l-Twinport engine [ 1 ] and the new 1,8-l-Motor [ 2 ], appeared introduced with OPELS, in 2005, a loaded concept in the engine family 1 was for the first time carried out here, table 1. A principal purpose in the work statement was the reaching of the high specific values of 82,5 kW/l and over 143 Nm/l with exzellenter run culture and under observance the standard defined for the generation 3 regarding quality, maintenance costs and service life. With this interpretation a broad area of application offers itself this engine as point motorizing into the small car class (b-segment) up to Downsizing concepts [ 3 ] in the elevated middle class (D-segment). In order to carry out this goal, in the concept phase all more highly loaded construction units were identified and in simulation computations and

Test stand test again laid out. Synergies with the parallel development the new 1,8-l-Motors could be used for the optimization of many development as well as aspects of manufacturing. The existing production line of the engine family 1 can be used by the use of a multiplicity of same casting blanks and identical engine main dimensions for the production and assembly.

The 1,6-l-Turbomotor is simultaneous the first loaded engine of the family 1 and the highest performance aggregate of the generation 3. For the development from the concept engine to

30 months were to production start at the disposal, the most important technical development targets were as follows specified:

* 132 KW of rated output and 230 Nm torque in as broad a speed range as possible

* harmonious and even achievement development

* cultivated and vibration-poor engine run

* maximum permissible excess weight of 15 kg (DIN 70020) in the comparison to the 1,6-l twin port engine

* Exhaust limit values after euro 4 with Potenzial for euro 5

* Retention of the main dimensions of the 1,6-l-Twinport-Motors

* Precautions for alternative fuel enterprise (CNG/LPG)

* small maintenance costs

* Manufacturing on existing Familie-1-Produktionsanlagen.

During the first concept definition for the generation 3 among other things the overboost was considered as achievement-increasing measure, fig. 1.


For the technology selection the cost-benefit ratio played an important role for the reaching of the defined development targets, then in the concept beside sequential suction tube injection and a firm valve impulse additionally a precaution for the enterprise with alternative fuels in the again developed suction tube was considered. Further components relevant regarding service life could be developed to a large portion together with the new 1,8-l-Motor. As loading concept a supercharger system of the newest generation was selected, a mechanical Aufla

dung was not applicable due to the worse effective efficiency as well as the smaller torque offer at middle numbers of revolutions. The used three-way exhaust subsequent treatment concept consists of a enginenear Vorkatalysator as well as a lower floor panel catalyst.


The cylinder head

Due to falling below of the temperature and tension limit values confirmed in computations the casting blank including lagerbruecke and plastic valve hood without changes of the new 1,8-l-Motor could be taken over. For the employment in the turbo engine the components within the exhaust range were only adapted to the higher thermal loads. As material for the exhaust valve seat rings high temperature and verschleissfeste cobalt molybdenum chromium alloy is used, the exhaust valves is sodium-cooled in the shank, with a diameter of 5 mm. The friction-reducing valve impulse concept with the maintenance-free mechanical bucket tappet impulse as well as steer-rubbed originates from the generation 3.


Positive Crankcase Ventilation

The engines of the generation 3 use an internal exhaust concept, in which uniform plastic valve hood are the oelabscheidung and a pressure control valve integrates. For the 1,6-l-Turbomotor additional requirements result to the venting system, caused by leakage gas flows at the turbocharger wave as well as by the fine oil emergence of the piston cooling.

The introduction that Blow by gases effected in the loaded engine enterprise before the compressor, for this was laid the secondary breather pipe from the high temperature-firm plastics FPM and PPS under the synchronous belt drive from the inlet to the exhaust side of the engine. A further primary line places the exhaust in the not-loaded engine enterprise by an exhaust

directly behind the butterfly valve in the suction tube surely, a check valve locks the line in the loaded enterprise. In all operating conditions an inadmissibly high positive pressure in the crank case is prevented. For the engine an oil change interval of one year and/or after service interval announcement up to 30.000 km is approved according to the standard of the generation 3.

Suction tube

The construction of the suction tube was accomplished on the basis three-dimensional flow simulation. Due to the Berechungsergebnisse the variant with side sucking in, more favorable for the Package, could be used instead of the alternative with center sucking in. For the potenziellen enterprise with alternative fuels as for example CNG/LPG became the admission

an additional fuel distributor board at the lower surface of the suction tube in the casting blank reproached, a later reconstruction of the suction tube becomes thus redundant. On the top side the engine expensive equipment as well as the tank ventilation valve with check valve, at the lower surface are attached are the vacuum reservoir as well as apart from the fuel injection

the ambient pressure sensor.

The cylinder block

As together developed basis weight and load-optimized carrying cross-beam concept of the new 1,8-l-Motors is used. The identical casting blank differs only by the respective specific treatment and weighs as finished unit inclusive quills only 27 kg. In order to withstand an effective medium pressure of up to 21,1 bar durably, as material grey cast iron GG 25 is used; due to the favorable acoustic behavior further secondary measures can be reduced to a minimum. This interpretation represents an optimum in the cost-benefit ratio and in the total weight of all components necessary for the enterprise with same functional characteristics. With an engine weight of 130,6 kg (DIN 70020) the selected concept reaches a weight per horsepower value of 0,989 kg/KW and is with a specific output of the serienmotoren loaded of 82,5 kW/l in the Topsegment, fig. 3.


Piston, piston rod and piston cooling

The pistons are specifically appropriate for the higher thermal and mechanical loads in the turbo engine for a maximum zylinderdruck by 110bar (pmax+2Sigma).

Around the permissible Kolbentemperaturen(max. 320 °C in soil center) to keep, a piston cooling is used, which improves additionally the lubrication at the gudgeon pin. In the apron computed the maximum piston temperatures, fig. 4, of 277 °C in the soil center and 243 °C in the upper enular groove show a good agreement with values measured later.


A further optimization regarding the arising gas and mass forces experienced the system of the swimming gudgeon pin storage, consisting of pistons, piston rods, bush and the gudgeon pin. In the comparison with the piston rod of the 1,8-l-Motors the range of the small pleuelauges is worked on, the pressure-lateral width from 16.2 mm to 20 mm was increased trapezoidally instead of parallel, with a simultaneous decrease the course-lateral width on 11.8 mm. The inside diameter of the gudgeon pin was reduced from 10 mm to 9 mm within the piston rod range, the outside diameter of 19 mm remained unchanged. With these measures the pressure load on the average around 25 %, within the range of the edges even around more than 45 % reduced with simultaneous

improved oil bringing in in the gudgeon pin range, fig. 5.


The turbochargers

For the reaching of a good starting bar the interpretation of the total concept as well as the geometrical interpretation of turbine and compressor of crucial importance is with turbo-petrol engines with low capacity. In extensive tuning work the effective diameters were specified for the turbine on 45.0 mm and for the compressor wheel on 52.4 mm. The turbochargers of the newest generation, specified for the reaching of the rated output of 132 KW, fig. 6, thermodynamically, the exhaust elbow union and the turbine case were optimized are implemented as integrated cast part from the material Ni-resist D5S. Camp and turbine cases are connected with a v-volume-clip, thereby leakages and efficiency losses in the system are prevented. Further advantages result from the use of a back closed turbine from Inconel, which improves the lagging at the same time to the bearing house. The theoretical disadvantage of the thereby increased mass-moment of inertia is overcompensated in the enterprise by a higher efficiency with better responsing mode. In the dynamic enterprise that reaches run things a maximum permissible engine speed of up to 204.000/min.


The permissible exhaust gas temperature was specified for the turbocharger system on maximally 950 °C, the bearing house is integrated over a connection at the oil water heat exchanger in cooling agent cycle of the engine. The use of a Nachhitzepumpe could be avoided by a purposeful interpretation of the cooling system. The three-fold heat shield fastened to the exhaust elbow union flange was optimized in vehicle attempts regarding hot-air currents and thermal radiation. Into the building group further the thrust circulating air valve accommodated in the compressor stator as well as the Wastegate Ladedruckregelung were integrated, both actuators are headed for pneumatically.


The drive

Crank gear

In order to withstand the higher gas forces, the Kurbelwel poured out of GGG 60 became

le within the range of the cheeks strengthens. In connection with the new two-mass flywheel the torsion vibration absorber was optimized for the reduction of the turning distortions for this application. For the pressure-lateral connecting rod bearing half a high speed sliding bearing strengthened regarding pressure and abrasion resistance is used, which is manufactured in the Magnetron coating process. Thereby can geometry of the camp and

Stud-diameter as well as the piston rod by the 1,8-l-Motor to be taken over. As crankshaft sensor system the new AMR system [ 2 ], integrated in the radial rotary shaft seal, is used, with which the associated magnetized giver wheel between crankshaft and flywheel is installed.

The electrical connection

The used motor control of the type Bosch ME 7.6.2 uses synergies from the suction engines of the engine family 0 and the 2,0-l-Turbo-Ottomotor of the engine family 2 on the part of the hard and software. On the suction tube motorfest attached hybrid controller is appropriate for high vibrations and temperatures and uses an air mass measurer as reference. The used architecture of the control makes the integration possible of the engine into different vehicle applications with most different requirements. The used sensors and actuators originate to a large extent from applications of the generation 3.

Power output diagram (note the overboost curve)


перевести можно на translate.google.ru

источник http://www.daewootech.com








Впускной коллектор Z16LER


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